Sanctions also were imposed on individuals known as "trolls" and the Russian organizations that supported their efforts to undermine the election.
Senator Maria Cantwell, the top Democrat on the Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee, asked the Trump administration earlier this month to provide a threat assessment gauging Russian capabilities to breach the USA electric grid.
The sanctions represent the administration's most aggressive actions to date against Russian Federation for its meddling and other activities against the US.
The sanctions, which US officials had hinted would be announced this week, were not directly linked to the poisoning in Britain of a retired Russian military intelligence officer and his daughter, though Treasury Secretary Steve Mnuchin cited the case as an example of what he called was Russia's reckless actions. In August, US President Trump was forced to sign the Countering America's Adversaries Through Sanctions Act, which he believed reduced the chances of building a working relationship with Moscow.
Mr Trump earlier told reporters during a White House event with Irish Prime Minister Leo Varadkar that "it certainly looks like the Russians were behind" the use of a nerve agent to attack on Sergei Skripal, a former Russian double agent in England.
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The energy sector attack was a cyber attack, and senior officials said Russian intrusions into energy systems "have been removed".
The US State Department made a brief statement referring to Russian "nefarious" activity.
In total, the administration applied new sanctions on five entities and 19 individuals on Thursday, including Russians who posed as Americans and posted content online as part of the IRA's attempts to sow discord ahead of the presidential contest.
The Russian government is reportedly preparing to retaliate.
Ryabkov suggests the Trump administration timed the sanctions to come ahead of this weekend's presidential election in Russian Federation. Moscow will craft a response, he said.
Mr Trump has faced fierce criticism in the U.S. for doing too little to punish Russia for the election meddling and other actions, and Special Counsel Robert Mueller is looking into whether his campaign colluded with the Russians, an allegation the president denies.
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Read alsoUK imposes set of sanctions on Russian Federation over spy poisoningTheir poisonings have caused heightened tensions between the United Kingdom and Russian Federation. Critics have said the White House has been too easy on the Kremlin since the last major US polls. The other is the GRU, a military spy organization, which officials said was "directly involved in interfering in the 2016 USA election" through cyber-activities. Systems in Ukraine were hit hardest, but United States companies, including shipping giant FedEx and the pharmaceutical firm Merck, also were affected, losing hundreds of millions of dollars in earnings. To date, the attack has cost companies around the world $1.2 billion in revenue, according to the cybersecurity firm Cybereason. Trump has since done so - though he again said other countries or individuals also might have been involved.
It is the first known instance of the special counsel demanding documents directly related to President Trump's businesses, bringing the investigation closer to the president.
Other experts said the sanctions have no bite, noting that a number of the individuals and entities were sanctioned during the Obama administration as well. Russian Federation in the past has denied it has tried to hack into other countries' infrastructure, and vowed on Thursday to retaliate for the new sanctions.
The named Russians - 19 in all - are unlikely to have any assets in the United States that would be covered, making the move largely symbolic.
Prigozhin has been called the "chef" to Russian President Vladimir Putin.
Russia's mounting aggression in cyberspace is part of a larger "hybrid warfare" strategy that marries traditional military means with digital tools to achieve its goal of regional dominance. The administration is also targeting the Internet Research Agency that Mueller says orchestrated much of the cybermeddling in the presidential election.
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Eric Rosenbach, a former senior Pentagon official in the Obama administration, said it was "extremely important" to sanction Russian Federation in response to the NotPetya attack. Senate Democratic leader Chuck Schumer said. The indicators go back to at least March 2016.