During his speech Friday at the National Science and Technology Week Celebration for Mindanao, Duterte said he believed there was one supreme mind-God.
Duterte said if anyone can say that they have either "been to heaven, talked to God [or] saw him personally", he would resign as president "tonight". I believe in one supreme God... I am not agnostic.
"You do that today, one single witness that there is a guy, a human being who was able to talk to see God", he added.
Duterte refused to apologize for his comments, saying that "your God is not my God because your God is stupid".
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The President's dialogue with the CBCP leader came after his recent "stupid God" remark triggered outrage from some religious leaders. There are billions and millions and billions and trillions of stars.
PCPR-Negros spokesman Deacon Melvin Fajardo said Duterte challenging anyone to prove God's existence is an attack not only on Roman Catholics but on all Christians.
"Where is the logic of God there?" he posed.
Duterte also sustained his criticisms of the Catholic doctrines, particularly the biblical stories of creation and original sin, despite an earlier promise to remain silent on his rift with the Church.
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In Manila, meanwhile, "running priest" Father Robert Reyes on Saturday said he opposed the one-on-one meeting of Duterte and the Catholic Bishops' Conference of the Philippines president Davao Archbishop Romulo Valles on July 9. "You were not involved but now you're stained with an original sin".
The Palace official said one archbishop raised the rift between Duterte and the Church, "but there was no substantial discussion on it because everyone's awaiting the meeting between Archbishop Valles and the President".
Catholic church leaders played key roles in the Philippines' 1986 "people power" revolt that ousted dictator Ferdinand Marcos and in the massive protests in 2001 that forced President Joseph Estrada from power after being accused of corruption.
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